Entries by Chris Malins

Efficient Energy

In this report for Transport and Environment we review the efficiency benefits of electric drive vehicles against combustion engines, and discuss how this efficiency differential could be appropriately reflected in revisions to the Renewable Energy Directive.

Aviation biofuels in Spain

This report for the Spanish NGO Ecologistas en Acción considers the potential for the development of an aviation biofuel industry in Spain. It notes that it may be challenging to reorient existing renewable diesel capacity to aviation fuel production because of the need to find non-food feedstocks if the fuel is to be counted under […]

Multiple and cover cropping in Brazil

Over recent decades the use of cover crops as part of the “sistema plantio direto” has become an important feature of Brazilian agriculture. In much of Brazil a second ‘safrinha’ (off season) corn crop is grown after a soy crop, and Brazilian safrinha corn is now a major contributor to the global corn supply. This […]

Animal, vegetable or mineral (oil)?

The United States is in a period of rapid expansion of vegetable oil hydrotreating capacity, which will greatly increase the potential to supply renewable diesel and renewable jet fuel under the Renewable Fuel Standard and state-level policies. This report for the International Council on Clean Transportation reviews the prospects for the industry, identifying the potential […]

SAFty in numbers

As part of the Green Deal, the European Commission has launched the “ReFuelEU Aviation Initiative” to increase the role of “sustainable aviation fuels” in EU aviation. This report for Transport and Environment discusses the potential supply of different SAF categories in 2030, and what might be required to deliver a rapid supply expansion. This includes […]

Fuelling Development

This report for Transport and Environment, written in partnership with David Calderbank Consulting, considers options for the development of alternative transport energy policy in the UK under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO). It discusses issues including adding renewable transport fuel obligations on aviation and marine fuel use, crediting renewable electricity use by electric vehicles, […]

Soy, land use change and ILUC-risk

In its assessment of which biofuel feedstocks should be considered ‘high ILUC-risk’, the European Commission found that soy oil was associated with second highest deforestation risk of the biofuel feedstocks considered, but that the level of deforestation identified fell below the threshold for high ILUC-risk designation. This study for Transport and Environment reviews the relationship […]

Beyond biomass?

Within the European Union’s recast Renewable Energy Directive support is available not only to biofuels but also to ‘renewable fuels of non-biological origin’ (electrofuels) and to ‘recycled carbon fuels’ (fuels produced taking advantage of fossil energy in solid and gaseous waste streams). This report for the International Council on Clean Transportation provides an introduction to […]

Accentuating the positive?

Estimating emissions associated with indirect land use change (ILUC) is a fundamental part of analysing the likely net GHG emissions impacts of biofuel mandates, and in some regulations (e.g. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard, California Low Carbon Fuel Standard and ICAO’s CORSIA) estimates of ILUC emissions associated with specific feedstocks have been integrated into regulatory lifecycle […]