This report for the Danish Energy Agency presents an overview and review of indirect land use change modelling, and provides a discussion of options for Denmark to adjust its biofuel policy to take further account of indirect land use change emissions.
About Chris Malins
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Entries by Chris Malins
In this report for Transport and Environment we review the efficiency benefits of electric drive vehicles against combustion engines, and discuss how this efficiency differential could be appropriately reflected in revisions to the Renewable Energy Directive.
This report for the Spanish NGO Ecologistas en Acción considers the potential for the development of an aviation biofuel industry in Spain. It notes that it may be challenging to reorient existing renewable diesel capacity to aviation fuel production because of the need to find non-food feedstocks if the fuel is to be counted under […]
Over recent decades the use of cover crops as part of the “sistema plantio direto” has become an important feature of Brazilian agriculture. In much of Brazil a second ‘safrinha’ (off season) corn crop is grown after a soy crop, and Brazilian safrinha corn is now a major contributor to the global corn supply. This […]
The United States is in a period of rapid expansion of vegetable oil hydrotreating capacity, which will greatly increase the potential to supply renewable diesel and renewable jet fuel under the Renewable Fuel Standard and state-level policies. This report for the International Council on Clean Transportation reviews the prospects for the industry, identifying the potential […]
As part of the Green Deal, the European Commission has launched the “ReFuelEU Aviation Initiative” to increase the role of “sustainable aviation fuels” in EU aviation. This report for Transport and Environment discusses the potential supply of different SAF categories in 2030, and what might be required to deliver a rapid supply expansion. This includes […]
This report for Transport and Environment, written in partnership with David Calderbank Consulting, considers options for the development of alternative transport energy policy in the UK under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO). It discusses issues including adding renewable transport fuel obligations on aviation and marine fuel use, crediting renewable electricity use by electric vehicles, […]
In its assessment of which biofuel feedstocks should be considered ‘high ILUC-risk’, the European Commission found that soy oil was associated with second highest deforestation risk of the biofuel feedstocks considered, but that the level of deforestation identified fell below the threshold for high ILUC-risk designation. This study for Transport and Environment reviews the relationship […]
This report for Transport and Environment reviews the role of biomass based energy in scenarios for meeting EU and global climate change targets.
Within the European Union’s recast Renewable Energy Directive support is available not only to biofuels but also to ‘renewable fuels of non-biological origin’ (electrofuels) and to ‘recycled carbon fuels’ (fuels produced taking advantage of fossil energy in solid and gaseous waste streams). This report for the International Council on Clean Transportation provides an introduction to […]
Cerulogy is the consultancy of Dr. Chris Malins.
We are experts in alternative and cleaner fuels policy, sustainability and regulation in North America, Europe and for aviation.
Cerulogy comes from the Latin ‘ceruleus’, the colour blue, which is derived from ‘caelum’ meaning sky, suffixed with -logy, from the Greek for a science. Blue sky thinking.